Lower Elkhorn NRD offers scholarships to attend 4-H & NRD Camps

The Lower Elkhorn Natural Resources District (LENRD) is accepting applications for 4-H & NRD summer camp scholarships from youth throughout the 15-county district. The LENRD will reimburse the winning applicants for their camp registration fee.

Scholarships are available for various 4-H and NRD sponsored camps around the state, including the Nebraska Range Youth Camp, and the Adventure Camp about the Environment (ACE Camp).

4-H scholarship winners must register for the camp of their choice, arrange for their own transportation and pay all fees.  The LENRD will reimburse the registration fee after the scholarship winners send camp attendance verification to the LENRD office.

Any 4-H member who would like to apply for these scholarships should contact their local Extension office or the LENRD office for more information and an application form.  All applications must be received by Friday, May 26th.  4-H scholarship winners will be notified the week of May 29th.

For more information, and a complete listing of all area camps, visit the University of Nebraska Extension 4-H web site at:  www.4h.unl.edu

Flow meters required for all wells designed to pump more than 50 gallons per minute

At its April 27, 2017 monthly meeting, the Lower Elkhorn Natural Resources District (LENRD) Board of Directors held a public hearing to consider amending its rules to require flow meters on public water supply, commercial, industrial and livestock wells designed to pump more than 50 gallons per minute. The Board approved these changes, which become effective on May 26, 2017. The amended rules require flow meters to be installed on these wells by January 1, 2019.  

LENRD Water Resources Manager, Brian Bruckner, said, "The high-capacity wells in the district join irrigation wells in the requirement to have flow meters installed.  Irrigation wells must have flow meters installed by January 1, 2018."

Mike Sousek, LENRD General Manager, said, "Thursday's decision makes the groundwater management rules more equitable across the district.  The board made the decision that instead of focusing everything on agriculture, we need to look at all the stakeholders.  If your well pumps more than 50 gallons per minute, you will need a meter installed."

Sousek added, "We're going to start working with the communities in our district, explaining the next steps.  This will be a benefit to them in the long run.  When a drought hits, especially a multi-year drought, it affects everyone."

Order of Designation and Flow Meter Rule

Assistant General Manager retires after almost 40 years of service

The Lower Elkhorn Natural Resources District (LENRD) board and staff recently celebrated the retirement of Assistant General Manager, Ken Berney, of Stanton.  Ken has been on the staff at the LENRD for almost 40 years.

Ken's leadership has been so important for the future of our district. He has formed lasting relationships with, not only his co-workers, but with the numerous partners and agencies that have worked with the LENRD since 1972. The knowledge that Ken is taking with him is priceless! Thank you Ken for your commitment to the protection of our natural resources, and for your constant support of our projects and programs. We wish you all the best in retirement. We miss you already!

Lower Elkhorn NRD promotes Arbor Day with tree sales

In Nebraska, Arbor Day is traditionally celebrated on the last Friday in April.  The 145th Anniversary of Arbor Day will be celebrated this Friday, April 28th.

Being the birth state of Arbor Day, it’s only appropriate that the Lower Elkhorn Natural Resources District (LENRD) promotes tree-planting programs each year.  The LENRD will have tree seedlings available for purchase this Friday in celebration of Arbor Day, at the Maskenthine Lake Recreation Area, north of Stanton.  From Norfolk, the lake is located 10 miles east on highway 275 and then 2 miles south on Ridge Road.  Signs will direct you to the LENRD Tree Distribution Center (approximately 2 miles north of Stanton).  The Center will be open from 8 a.m. until 1 p.m. on Arbor Day.  Seedlings can be purchased in bundles of 25 for $22.  Small acreage packages will also be available for $44.

LENRD Forester, Pam Bergstrom, said, “Plant a tree to protect your property and the future.  Our parents did it for us, and we should return the favor for future generations.”

Contact Bergstrom at the LENRD office, 402-371-7313, if you have questions about your trees or if you need further assistance.

Open House on April 4th to review Lower Elkhorn River Basin Water Quality Management Plan

Landowners and residents of the Lower Elkhorn Natural Resources District (LENRD) are invited to attend an Open House to learn about the Lower Elkhorn River Basin Water Quality Management Plan (the Plan). The Plan covers the lower portion of the Elkhorn River Basin, which is the watershed that created the boundary for the LENRD. The Plan provides a single coordinated strategy to identify water quality threats and needs, prioritize watersheds and areas for improvement, and identify practices and activities appropriate to address the known deficiencies in water quality.

The Open House will be located in the Lifelong Learning Center at Northeast Community College, 601 E Benjamin Ave, Norfolk, from 7:00 to 8:00 pm on April 4, 2017. Representatives from the NRD and NDEQ will be present to discuss the intent of the Plan, key recommendations, and how the Plan will benefit the public as projects are implemented in the future.

LENRD Grant Coordinator, Kristie Olmer, said, “The biggest priority for the LENRD was to address water quality concerns for the Willow Creek Reservoir. The Plan includes specific actions that would need to take place in order to reduce the occurrence of toxic algae blooms at the lake. Other waterbodies considered a priority for additional monitoring include Maskenthine Lake, Maple Creek Lake, and Rock Creek.”

The Plan was funded through a grant received from the Nebraska Department of Environmental Quality (NDEQ) and the LENRD.

The public is encouraged to visit www.lenrd.org/water-studies for more information and to view a copy of the full draft plan. Please contact Kristie Olmer at 402-371-7313 or kolmer@lenrd.org to provide comments or input.

Two tree pruning workshops to be held this week

The Osmond Tree Board will be hosting a Fruit Tree Pruning Workshop at the Osmond Fruit Orchard at the intersection of Main Street and Hwy 20 on Tuesday, March 28th from 2-4 p.m. This workshop is open to the public with no registration necessary. Pam Bergstrom, Forester with the Lower Elkhorn Natural Resources District, and Steve Rasmussen, District Forester with the Nebraska Forest Service, will demonstrate how to prune fruit trees and how to care for them. Contact Pam Bergstrom at 402.371.7313 for more information.

The Madison Arboretum Board will be hosting a tree pruning workshop on Wednesday, March 29th at the Madison Pool meeting room from 2-4 p.m.  The pool is located near the intersections of South Lincoln Street and 10th Street.  No registration is necessary.  The foresters will be on hand to explain and demonstrate how to prune trees and shrubs.  The public is encouraged to attend.  For more information, contact Pam Bergstrom:  pbergstrom@lenrd.org

Public hearing on proposed amendments to Groundwater Management Area rules will be held March 23rd

The Lower Elkhorn NRD will hold a public hearing on Thursday, March 23rd at 7:30 p.m.  The purpose of the hearing is to receive public comment on proposed amendments to the district's groundwater management area rules and regulations.  The district proposes to require the installation of flow meters on all active Public Water Supply, Commercial/Industrial, and Livestock wells within the district that are designed to pump more than 50 gallons per minute, and to install flow meters on these wells by January 1, 2019.  Please see the attachments below, or contact the LENRD office for more information at 402-371-7313.

Notice of Public Hearing

Proposed Amendments

 

Apply today to become a Camp Host at Maskenthine or Maple Creek

Are you interested in becoming a Camp Host for the Maskenthine Lake Recreation Area or the Maple Creek Recreation Area? Camp hosts are volunteers who are willing to share their camping knowledge and love of the outdoors with others. They welcome visitors, acquaint them with park facilities, and answer any questions they may have. The recreation areas are located near Stanton and Leigh, NE. Contact the LENRD for more information at 402-371-7313.

Camp Host Application

Maskenthine Lake - north of Stanton, NE

Maskenthine Lake - north of Stanton, NE

Public meeting to present helicopter flight data in Bazile Groundwater Management Area on Wednesday

The Bazile Groundwater Management Area Project will be holding a presentation in Creighton, NE on Wednesday, March 15th at 3:00 p.m. at the VFW Hall to present the groundwater mapping data from the helicopter flights flown last July.  The meeting is open to the public.  Light refreshments will be provided.  For more information contact Tanner Jenkins, Project Coordinator at 402-336-3867.

A public hearing to certify irrigated acres will be held March 23rd

The Lower Elkhorn Natural Resources District (LENRD) will conduct a public hearing to certify irrigated acres on March 23, 2017 at 7:30 p.m.  The hearing will be held at the Lifelong Learning Center, located on the campus of Northeast Community College - 601 East Benjamin Avenue in Norfolk.  The attached list of individuals are those who have fields in this certification hearing.  If you have any questions about this hearing or the certification process, contact Mike Murphy at the LENRD office, 402-371-7313.

Acres to be certified

Public Hearing policy

Contested Hearing form

The LENRD has an opening for a Programs Assistant for Wayne County

The Lower Elkhorn Natural Resources District (LENRD) has an opening for a Programs Assistant in the Natural Resources Conservation Service office in Wayne, NE.  Administrative support work with moderate difficulty and complexity involving a variety of tasks, and strong computer skills needed.  40 hours per week with excellent benefits.  Send resume’ to the:  LENRD, P.O. Box 1204, Norfolk, NE 68702-1204.  Closing date:  March 3, 2017.

Programs Assistant - Job Description

Programs Assistant - Other Job Duties

No-till, cover crops, and planned grazing workshop to be held on the 15th

The annual no-till, cover crops, and planned grazing workshop will be held Wednesday, February 15th in the Lifelong Learning Center on the campus of Northeast Community College in Norfolk.

Registration begins at 9:00 a.m. with coffee and rolls provided by the Lower Elkhorn Natural Resources District (LENRD).

In the morning session, Dan Leininger will be talking about soil moisture monitoring and telemetry.  Leininger has worked at the Upper Big Blue NRD for 13 years as a Water Conservationist and was instrumental in developing the Nebraska Agricultural Water Use Network which measures soil moisture and crop evapo-transpiration to schedule irrigation on crops. Leininger also manages the Upper Big Blue NRD’s demonstration farm that uses crop rotation and cover crops to improve soil health which will reduce input costs and increase profit per acre.

Keith Berns will present:  Carbonomics – The “Currency” of Biological Systems.  Berns combines 20 years of no-till farming with 10 years of teaching Agriculture and Computers.  He is no-tilling 2,500 acres of irrigated and dryland corn, soybeans, rye, triticale, peas, sunflowers, and buckwheat.  Berns speaks on cover crops and soil health more than 20 times per year to various groups and audiences.

Mary Drewnoski will talk about the impacts of cattle grazing on croplands.  Drewnoski is a Beef Systems Specialist with UNL and is researching utilization of corn residue and cover crop forages for backgrounding calves and feeding beef cows. She will talk about how corn residue and cover crop grazing impacts soil health and how grazing cover crops positively impact crop yields.

Lunch will be provided by the LENRD at noon.

The afternoon program will include:  Ray Ward - Managing Fertility with Cover Crops in No-till Soils.  Ward, founder and president of Ward Laboratories says “Soil Health” is simply a measure of the interaction of plant growth to microbial activity”.  Ward will talk about the soil fertility concepts of this “new paradigm” in nutrient management where cover crops are added to continuous no-till cash cropping systems.

Lance Gunderson will present:  Integrating Soil Health Tests with Traditional Soil Tests.  Gunderson joined Ward Laboratories in the fall of 2002 and is currently the Director of Soil Health and New Test Development.  Gunderson will talk about correlating PLFA, Solvita, and Haney tests with standard soil tests in making a “modern day” recommendation for nutrient management plans.

Dan Gillespie, State No-Till Specialist, will discuss Cover Crop Management in corn/soybean rotations, and will highlight management options:  seeding, termination, and planting cash crops.

The workshop will end at 3:00 p.m. and is sponsored by:  the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), and the LENRD.  Reserve your seat by calling your local NRCS office or the LENRD at 402.371.7313.

Cover Crop Management Workshops to be held next week

The Lower Elkhorn NRD and the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) are hosting three educational workshops on cover crop management on Feb. 6th, 7th, and 8th.  Producers are encouraged to attend the workshops to learn important benefits to your farming operation from producers who have experience in growing cover crops.  The workshops will be held from 9:00 until noon each day.  The workshop on Monday will be held at the courthouse in West Point, Tuesday at the library in Pierce, and Wednesday at the Lifelong Learning Center in Norfolk.  Call the LENRD office for further details at 371-7313, or stop by your local NRCS office.

Cover Crop Management Workshops - Feb. 6th, 7th, 8th

Bank stabilization project will provide protection along Elkhorn River

Since the flood of 2010, a unique local partnership has been building to protect northeast Nebraska from future flood events.

At their January meeting, the Lower Elkhorn Natural Resources District (LENRD) board voted 12 to 1 to approve the Interlocal Agreement to move forward with the bank stabilization project that will protect the railroad and Highway 81 from future flood events on the Elkhorn River.  The flooding in 2010 caused significant damage, including the collapse of a railroad bridge, which negatively impacted area businesses and industry.  A railroad employee was killed when the bridge collapsed into the river.

The bank stabilization project brings together public and private partners, including:  the Madison County Railroad Transportation Safety District, Nebraska Central Railroad, Nucor, Vulcraft, Elkhorn Valley Ethanol, Norfolk Iron & Metal, and the LENRD.

Norfolk City Administrator, Shane Weidner, said, “I’m thankful to the LENRD board and all the partners.  This has truly been a team effort from our industrial partners, our major industries, the Railroad Transportation Safety District and the LENRD.”

LENRD General Manager, Mike Sousek, said, “This has been a great collaborative effort between Madison County, the City of Norfolk, the industries, and the LENRD.  I’m happy the board moved forward with this. It’s going to provide great protection for all of us in Northeast Nebraska. I’m looking forward to getting the contract in place and getting the project built.”

The project has seen a decrease in cost from $2.4 million to the current estimate of $750,000.  The LENRD will share $250,000 of the cost as a partner in this project.

In other action, the board elected new officers for 2017.

The board elected Dennis Schultz of Wisner as their new chairman.  Mike Krueger of Pierce was voted in as vice-chairman, Mark Hall of Norfolk as secretary, and Bob Huntley of Norfolk as Treasurer.  Other positions filled were Kurt Janke of Wayne as the voting delegate of the Nebraska Association of Resources Districts, and Gary Loftis of Craig as the alternate NARD delegate.

Sousek, said, “I’m looking forward to working with the new officers.  This gives them a chance to demonstrate their leadership skills as we work through various issues and challenges together.”

The next board meeting will be held on Thursday, February 23rd at 7:30 p.m.

Conservation efforts recognized at annual awards banquet

The Lower Elkhorn Natural Resources District (LENRD) board honored outstanding conservationists at their annual awards banquet on Friday, January 13th.  The event was held at the Divots Conference Center in Norfolk and attracted over 60 people.

Outstanding Tree Planter Award

The Outstanding Tree Planter Award is presented to individuals within the district who have shown a strong commitment to the planting and care of trees.  The Bill Osborn family of Tilden were honored as the recipients of the 2016 Outstanding Tree Planter Award.

The Osborns live north of Tilden in Pierce County where Bill is a carpenter.  The rustic log cabin that the family resides in was built by Bill, with the assistance of friends and family.  Bill, and his wife, Kathy, have three children, Tyler, Audrey, and Elizabeth.

The Osborns were nominated by LENRD Forester, Pam Bergstrom.  Bergstrom said, “If you were to visit Bill’s place, you would think you were out in a native forest, when you are in fact in a man-made windbreak/forest that encircles the property and has been planted one tree at a time by Bill and his family.”

The main windbreak that protects the log cabin was planted by the Lower Elkhorn NRD in the late 1990s and early 2000s.  With planting around 300 new trees each year along with the trees that the NRD has planted, it is estimated that there are over 5,000 trees on his property that have been purchased through the Lower Elkhorn NRD’s Conservation Tree Program, a grand total of 9,200 trees from both the NRD and other nurseries.

Bergstrom added, “This would be roughly 10-15 acres of trees.  Maintenance and management on his trees is Bill’s main priority and every year he replants the ones that have died.   He is very diligent about making sure that there is no space left vacant.  He has started a new project of growing his own trees from seed that he has collected from his own trees and unique trees from around the area.  Bill and his family are very deserving of this award.”

Educators of the Year Award

The Lower Elkhorn Natural Resources District partners with schools across the district and encourages students to become good stewards of our natural resources.  At their recent awards banquet, the district recognized two teachers who have demonstrated excellence throughout their career.

Suzy Goedeken and Patrick Kratochvil are instructors at Madison Public School.  Madison Public Schools implemented a Watershed Dynamics program into their summer curriculum in 2011.  Suzy and Patrick are the co-instructors of the program which brings students together to learn more about our water through a diverse sampling program in the Taylor and Union Creek Watershed.  Madison High School has received grants from the Lower Elkhorn NRD to continue the program thanks to the efforts of both Suzy and Patrick.

The program brings approximately 20 students together to complete water sampling and analysis of the data throughout the summer months.  Each year, Suzy and Patrick, bring the students to an NRD board meeting so they can give a report on what they discovered and show the directors what they have learned.

Suzy is currently in her 16th year of teaching.  She has been working with the Taylor-Union Creek Watershed Program since the beginning.  Before that, Suzy worked with the Shell Creek Watershed Program in Newman Grove for 5 years. Suzy and her husband, Mick, have two children, Michayla and Micah.

Patrick is in his 19th year of teaching and has been teaching High School Physical Sciences for 14 years at Madison High School.  He has been co-sponsoring the Taylor-Union Watershed Class for 6 years.  Patrick and his wife, Beth, have four children, Courtney, Shawn, Michael, and Curtis.

Vice-Chairman of the LENRD Board, Dennis Schultz, presented the awards.  Schultz stated, “The educator of the year award recognizes Suzy and Patrick for their excellence in teaching future generations the value of our natural resources.”

Outstanding Partnership

The Lower Elkhorn Natural Resources District works with various agencies and partners each year as we work to improve the quality of life for the citizens across Northeast Nebraska.  At the banquet, the district recognized Susan Risinger Green for the outstanding partnership they have shared with her throughout the years.

Susan Risinger Green is a native of Brunswick and a graduate of Plainview High School. She attended Wayne State College and Northeast Community College.

She began her journalistic career in 1981 at the Neligh News and Leader, and was named assistant news director at WJAG radio in Norfolk in September of 1989. She was with WJAG, Lite Rock 97.5 and 106KIX Radio in Norfolk for more than 26 years, where she served as assistant news director and farm director.

She has received numerous awards over the years for her agricultural reporting and programming, including the 2007 Oscar in Agriculture.  Most recently, she received the award of merit for significant achievement in the advancement of agriculture at the AgCeptional Women’s Conference, which the Lower Elkhorn NRD helps sponsor each year.

Schultz said, “Susan has been an outstanding partner with the Lower Elkhorn NRD for the past 26+ years.  She has been extensively involved with stories from water to wildlife.  This award recognizes Susan for her past support & excellence in reporting on the wise use and conservation of Nebraska's natural resources.  Susan, thank you for the partnership we have shared with you.”

Susan joined Northeast Community College in May of 2016 to serve as the campaign director for the proposed Ag and Water Center of Excellence.  She and her husband, Ron, live in Norfolk and have four children.

Service Awards:

Service awards were also presented by LENRD General Manager Mike Sousek.

Laurie Schold of Oakland, Logan East Rural Water System Financial Secretary, was awarded for 10 years of service.

Director awards were also presented to the following:  Jarvis Otten of Norfolk for his service on the board since 2015; Dave Shelton of Wayne for his service on the board since 2014; Danny Kluthe of Dodge for his service on the board since 2010; and Tim Tighe for his 25 years of service to the district from 1991-2016.

Vice-Chairman Schultz added, “Congratulations to all of our winners tonight.  We thank you for your hard work and continued efforts in protecting our natural resources.”

Drought Management Plan draft available for review

The Lower Elkhorn Natural Resources District (LENRD) is taking proactive steps to reduce the impacts of future drought events.  One of these steps is the development of the Drought Management Plan.  The Drought Management Plan defines drought locally and identifies processes to respond to and manage the impacts of future drought events.

The Drought Management Plan was developed with the intention that it be adopted as an appendix of the 2015 LENRD Hazard Mitigation Plan.  The public is encouraged to review the plan and provide comments, no later than January 25th, 2017.

The Drought Management Plan was funded by a FEMA planning grant. The cost is shared 75% through federal funding and 25% through a local match. The LENRD is providing the 25% local match. The LENRD hired JEO Consulting Group, Inc. (JEO) to assist with the plan development. 

For more information on this planning effort, contact Brian Bruckner, LENRD Water Resources Manager, at 402-371-7313 or bbruckner@lenrd.org

Drought Management Plan - DRAFT for public review

Flow meter certification training to be held January 11th

In an effort to remain proactive in the management of our groundwater, flow meters are required on all active high capacity wells within the Lower Elkhorn Natural Resources District (LENRD) by January 1, 2018.

All meters need to be installed by a certified installer.  If you’re interested in installing your own meter, please contact Curt Becker at the LENRD office, or plan on attending the next training on Wednesday, January 11th.

Training Schedule – January 11th

The LENRD has secured two grants to assist landowners with the expense of this requirement.  Please contact your local NRCS office or the LENRD for more information.

Groundwater Management addressed during three public hearings

The Lower Elkhorn Natural Resources District (LENRD) held three public hearings during their December board meeting to address modifications to their Rules and Regulations for Management of Groundwater, changes to the LENRD Groundwater Management Plan, and to certify irrigated acres.

The first hearing was to accept public comment on changes to the Rules and Regulations for Management of Groundwater which modified the controls in place for any Phase 2 or Phase 3 Area in the LENRD, and establishes a set of controls for a Phase 4 Area, with all changes intended to provide greater protection of groundwater quality in the LENRD.  The proposed changes will add the prohibition of fall and winter application of commercial nitrogen to fields within the Phase 2 Area between the dates of October 15 and March 15 to further reduce the chance of nitrate-nitrogen leaching into the groundwater.  Although there are currently no areas in the LENRD that are designated as Phase 3 Areas, the changes include a requirement to prohibit the application of more than 80 pounds of commercial nitrogen without the use of a district-approved nitrification inhibitor after March 15 of each year.  The producer also has the option of splitting their nitrogen applications into multiple applications to avoid this requirement.  If an inhibitor is used, proof of such use must be submitted to the district annually.  LENRD Water Resources Manager, Brian Bruckner, said, “The changes also establish a set of controls for a Phase 4 Area, which can be implemented by the Board of Directors in areas with acute groundwater contamination conditions.”  The controls for a Phase 4 Area include: annual deep soil testing for nitrate-nitrogen when planting a non-legume crop (such as corn), proof of APH (actual production history) for determination of yield goals and verification of nitrogen budgets, annual sampling of irrigation wells for nitrate-nitrogen and required use of cover crops to sequester residual crop nutrients.

The next hearing was held to certify irrigated acres across the district.  767 tracts of land were certified as irrigated acres.  Approximately 88% of the district’s acres are now certified.  The next irrigated acre certification hearing will be held on March 23rd at the LENRD office in Norfolk.

The third hearing was to allow changes to be made to the Groundwater Management Plan to include the requirement of flow meter installation on high capacity wells classified for use as: public water supply wells, commercial wells, industrial wells, livestock wells, or any wells that are designed to pump more than 50 gallons per minute.  Bruckner added, “This is the first step in a two-step process to implement this requirement.  The next step will be to develop language for the Rules and Regulations for Management of Groundwater to spell out the specifics of this new requirement.”

The 2017 allocation rates were also set at the December meeting.  Each year, the board must determine the annual groundwater allocation amounts for the Wayne and Madison County Quantity Management Subareas for the upcoming crop year.  The staff recommended using the same amounts for the 2017 season.  Bruckner, said, “These allocation amounts are the same as 2016.  We are continuing to develop the framework for further expansion of irrigated acres in defined areas within the district by 2018.”

In other business, the board approved a proposal from the Nebraska Game & Parks Commission to proceed with a Bathymetric Survey of the Willow Creek reservoir.  LENRD Assistant General Manager, Ken Berney, said, “The survey will help to design potential habitat projects, and also focus on the sedimentation rate of the reservoir.  The data will be very useful in planning for the future of the recreation area.”

The next board meeting will be held on Thursday, January 26th at 7:30 p.m.

 

Irrigated acre certification hearing to be held on December 15th

The Lower Elkhorn Natural Resources District (LENRD) is in the process of certifying irrigated acres across the 15-county district.  Once certification is completed, irrigation within the LENRD will be allowed only on acres classified as Certified Irrigated Acres.

The next Irrigated Acre Certification Public Hearing will be held at 6:30 p.m. on Thursday, December 15th at the LENRD office in the Lifelong Learning Center on the campus of Northeast Community College in Norfolk.  The parcels to be certified are listed below, or you can view the maps at the LENRD office:  601 E. Benjamin Avenue, Suite 101 in Norfolk.

Contact Mike Murphy at the LENRD office for more information at 402-371-7313.

Hearing Policy

Fields to be certified

Contested hearing form